New resources and new approaches to their use.
Natural resources are natural components used by man to meet his needs.
Our planet is rich in various natural resources. Mineral resources (minerals), soil, water, biological and recreational resources are widespread in the area. The state of human well-being directly depends on the level of development of natural resources.
Classification of natural resources.
According to the origin:
Wealth of natural components. Resources of natural components (mineral, climate, water, plants, soil, fauna)
Resources of natural territorial complexes (mining, water management, forestry).
For use in the farm:
Industrially important resources.
Energy resources (fuel, minerals, hydropower, biofuels, nuclear raw materials)
Non-energy resources (mineral, water, land, forest, fish resources)
Agricultural production resources (agroclimate, soil, plant resources - fodder base, irrigation water, etc.)
Due to depletion:
Non-renewable (mineral and soil resources);
Renewable (flora and fauna);
Not fully restored - the rate of recovery is lower than the level of economic use (arable land, etc.);
Inexhaustible (water, climate).
According to the level of replacement:
Mineral resources and their use.
The mineral resources of the planet are all the minerals produced by mankind. More than 200 minerals are used today.
Mineral deposits are divided into three categories according to their geological reserves: deposits with precisely discovered and determined depth (A), deposits with discovered and estimated reserves (B), deposits discovered and initially estimated reserves (C). At the same time, the forecast reserves of the fields (D) are used in the assessment of reserves.
Natural minerals are considered only after their industrial use.
Large amounts of mineral resources are discovered in the world every year and many deposits are put into operation. However, 70-75% of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, 60-70% of coal, and only 40-45% of oil and natural gas are extracted from the exploited fields. Clearly, the technology used to improve these indicators needs to be improved.
Mineral resources are in the form of fuel and energy, ore and non-ore raw materials, depending on their geological origin and use.
In addition, mineral resources are classified into liquid (oil, mineral waters), solid (various salts, coal, granite, marble, etc.) and gas (flammable gases, methane, helium, etc.).
Mineral fuel raw materials
There are many energy resources in nature. These reserves consist of oil, gas, stone, coal, peat and combustible shales, which are concentrated in sedimentary rocks. The proven reserves of fuel and raw materials on the ground are about 14 trillion. tons. This can meet the needs of the world economy in the next 1,000 years. Coal accounts for 65% of the discovered fuel reserves, and oil and gas for 27%. Their consumption structure is 35% oil, 30% gas and 25% coal.
The world's geological reserves of coal are 1.8 trillion tons, of which 55% is hard coal and the rest is lignite. Asia accounts for 52% of coal reserves. Most of the coal reserves are concentrated in the United States, India, China, Russia, Australia and Kazakhstan. Along with the volume of coal reserves, its quality is of special importance. tons, lignite production is 1 billion tons per year. tons.
Coal reserves have been discovered in 83 countries. The largest coal basins in operation are located in the United States (Appalachia), Germany (Ruhr and Saar), Russia (Kansk-Achinsk, Kuzbass), Ukraine (Donbass), Poland (Silesia).
China (3.5 billion tons) and the United States (0.99 billion tons) are the largest producers of coal. After these countries, Australia, South Africa and Canada are the world's leading coal exporters.
The industrial significance of oil began to grow in the 1970s with the invention of the internal combustion engine. In the 50s and 60s of the 20th century, the world produced 22.5 million tons of oil, of which 11.1 million tons. It was produced in Azerbaijan.
Currently, the world's real reserves are 210-250 billion tons. 90 thousand oil fields are exploited and about 5 billion tons are produced annually. oil is consumed. 40% of the world's oil is produced in the four leading countries (Saudi Arabia, the United States, Russia and Iran). As a result of the discovery of oil and gas fields, their proven reserves are growing every year. According to geological estimates, the total volume of these reserves is 500 billion tons. Most of the identified oil reserves are in Asia (75%), including 60% of the Persian Gulf. At the same time, according to the US Geological Survey, the Arctic alone contains 13% of the world's discovered oil reserves and 30% of natural gas reserves.
The importance of oil in the world's fuel and energy balance is constantly growing. If in 1900 the share of oil in the total production of energy resources was 3%, in 1950 this figure increased to 24%, in 2008 to 55% and in 2013 to 60%.
Oil is one of the world's non-renewable natural resources. The world's proven oil reserves are estimated at 210-250 billion barrels. Experts estimate that about 35% of oil and gas reserves are concentrated on the shelf of the world's oceans.
The constant increase in oil consumption can lead to the depletion of its proven reserves in the next 70-80 years. However, the discovery of new fields in the world every year prolongs this period. The discovered oil reserves in Azerbaijan will fully meet the needs of our country in this product for the next 100 years.
500 products are produced from oil (gasoline, paraffin, diesel, fuel oil, various cosmetics, foodstuffs, etc.).
Oil is extracted in 3 ways: fountain, compressor and pump. Transport is carried out by pipelines and large tonnage tankers.
Product oil grades and brands. Reference brands.
Marker oil grades are oil grades with a certain composition (sulfur content, density, etc.). They are widely used in valuation when buying and selling crude oil.
The benchmark for the American region is known as WTI (West Texas Intermediate) or Texas light sweet. It is used more in the production of gasoline.
Brent oil is the benchmark for Europe and Africa. Brent or London Brent is produced from four oil fields (Brent, Forties, Oseberg and Ecofisk) in the North Sea off the shelf between Norway and Scotland.
For the Asian region, the benchmark is Dubai Oman or Fatih. In addition, there are different types of oil, including Urals, Siberian Light, Iranian light, Iranian heavy, Iraqi Kirkuk, Azeri Light and others. aiddir.
Oil price formation:
Production and tax $ 5-15;
Preparation and geological exploration $ 7-42;
Extraction from self-zones + 30%.
Factors affecting the price:
Depth of oil formation;
distance from major transport routes;
distance from the consumer, etc.
The world's natural gas reserves have increased by 51.5 trillion cubic meters over the past 12 years to 200.7 trillion cubic meters. It is estimated at 40% of the Middle East and 27% of Russia.
The importance of the world's oceans in natural gas production is constantly growing. Today, more than 30% of the world's natural gas is produced by the ocean shelf. Russia is the world's largest producer of natural gas (640 billion cubic meters per year). Russia exports 230 billion cubic meters of this volume to Europe every year. Natural gas production in the United States varies between 580-610 billion cubic meters. The next places are occupied by Canada, Great Britain, Algeria, the Netherlands, Indonesia, Norway, Iran and other countries. The volume of natural gas production in these countries varies between 150-250 billion cubic meters. In general, the share of these countries in world natural gas production is more than 70%. Interestingly, only 15% of world natural gas production falls on OPEC member countries. Unlike oil production, natural gas production plays an important role in meeting the consumption needs of fuel resources with high growth rates. World natural gas production in 2006 was 2,820 billion cubic meters and in 2012 it was 3,455 billion cubic meters.